The Central Nervous System in Your Body: Structure and functions

CNS stands for Central Nervous System. CNS is located in the human body region, and CNS is the storehouse of human emotions, thinking, movements, memories, and plans. The brain and CNS’s fundamental structural and functional unit is called a neuron.

Roles & Responsibilities

  • Two main parts belong to CNS one is the brain, and another one is the spinal cord.
  • The practice of discovering the central nervous system was started in the 16 century. An anatomist named Andreas Vesalius, who belonged to Belgian, had drafted the central nervous system for the first time.
  • The brain is the essential organ of the human body, which controls the actions of the body, directs the body to do certain things, and makes decisions.
  • The spinal cord is a cord-like structure that starts from the brain and runs down through the back of humans. The spinal cord provides flexibility to the human body and helps it for walking.
  • The spinal cord and brain are covered in a three-layer covering called meninges.
  • Skull is the solid structure that covers the brain. The human brain is very delicate, and minor injury to the brain can result in massive health problems like mental illness and loss of memory, etc.
  • The central nervous system has been thoroughly studied and researched, but several secrets are yet to unfold.

The brain

The human brain is the most vital and complex organ of the body. The brain is divided into four lobes. Each lobe contains a different color. These lobes are:

Parietal lobe

This lobe processes information like touch, smell, spatial awareness, etc. This lobe is yellow.

Temporal lobe

This lobe contains the information about the things that happened in the past and then makes them memories by giving an emotional perception of the events. This lobe is red.

Frontal lobe

This lobe looks pink in color. The Frontal lobe contains the front part of the brain. The frontal lobe is responsible for all the planning that humans do; attention and self-motivation thinking are also generated through the frontal lobe of the brain.

Occipital lobe

This lobe is connected with the eyes. The occipital lobe processes all the visual sensations. This lobe is pink in color and contains the visual cortex.



This part of the brain includes the cerebral cortex, thalamus, pineal gland, hypothalamus, etc. The forebrain helps process the body’s emotions, temperature, reproduction, emotions, sleeping patterns, etc.


This part of the brain connects the forebrain with the hindbrain. The midbrain constitutes the initial part of the brainstem. The other name for midbrain is mesencephalon. Midbrain aids in the audio-visual processes.


It’s the backside of the brain, and this part includes the medulla oblongata and cerebellum. The medulla oblongata plays a vital role in regulating the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in the body.

Spinal cord:

  • The spinal cord begins in the brain and ends in the human back. Spinal cord exchanges information between the various parts of the body and brain. The brainstem is the point of origin of the spinal cord in the brain. A group of 31 spinal nerves enters the spinal cord at the brainstem and follows the cord.
  • The spinal cord connects the PNS with the other body parts, and nerves go into the skin, muscles, and joints to send the singles to the brain.
  • The spinal cord has reflexive or self-defensive responses. These responsive include is trying to hold something when you are falling and removing your hand immediately as you touch something piercing, hot and cold, etc.


Neurons are basic functional and structural units of the brain. Neurons are the nerve cells that establish connections with other cells like blood cells and skin cells through synapses. There are three types of neurons:

Motor neurons

The brain and spinal cord signal these neurons to control the glandular output and muscle contraction etc.

Sensory neurons

These neurons get the signals from the brain and spinal cord about the stimuli and their responses, such as touch, smell, taste, sound, etc. The neurons send the signals back to the brain.


These neurons are called the connecting neurons. Interneurons connect the neurons of the brain and spinal cord. This connection of neurons is called the neural circuit.

Functions of CNS:

The functions of CNS include somatic actions and autonomic actions by CNS.

Somatic actions

These actions are reflected visibly and can be controlled by the person itself.

Autonomic actions

These types of actions of the CNS may not be visible, and they happen automatically in the body. These actions include the beating of the heart.

The receptor nerve cells of the CNS receive the impulse from the body and send the signals to the brain. The brain sends the responsive signal with a message about what that part of the body must take action.

Some frequently asked questions

1. What is the white and grey matter of CNS?

There are two parts of CNS on the bases of matter in it, one is called the white matter, and the other is called the grey matter. The white matter is present in the inner part of the brain, while the outer part of the brain is filled with grey-colored matter.xdcQWhite matter includes axons and oligodendrocytes, while neurons occupy grey matt.

2. What are cranial nerves?

Carnival nerves are a special kind of nerves that arises from the brain. The cranial nerves do not follow the path of going along the spinal cord, and they directly make their way through the holes of the skull. The prime work of cranial nerves is to exchange information between the brain, head, and neck.

3. What are diseases that are associated with CNS?

The diseases of CNS are also known as CNS disorders or brain disorders. Common CNS disorders are epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, neurofibromatosis, etc. Headaches are a joint disease related to CNS. The symptoms of these diseases are memory loss, loss of feeling and muscle strength, lack of concentration, etc.

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