Decoding the Secrets of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

The DNA, Deoxyribonucleic acid, is a simple structure composed of four bases – adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine. They are referred to as A, C, T, and G. The deoxyribose and nucleic acid with the bases form the DNA.

The human DNA has roughly 3 billion bases, and 99 percent of bases are the same in all humans. What distinguishes one person’s DNA from another is the sequence of these bases.

The deoxyribose is also called sugar, and the nucleic acid is referred to as phosphate. The DNA has two strands that together form the double helix’s shape. The sugar and the nucleic acid, along with the four bases, support these strands.

The DNA shows the genetics of living beings and in different viruses.

A brief history of DNA

  • The concept and importance of DNA first came to light in 1869.
  • In 1953 more in-depth research was done by James Watson, Francis Crick, and biophysicists Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkin.
  • In this research, scientists recovered that it is a double-helix polymer having two strands.
  • It helped scientists in knowing cellular activities and DNA replication.

Where is DNA found?

The human body consists of many very tiny cells. These cells are also called the nucleus. The nucleus now further contains the DNA, and each cell has multiple DNA. This DNA together forms a pack, which is called chromosomes.

The DNA found in the nucleus cell is also known as nuclear DNA. The complete set that contains vital information about the person’s hereditary is called the genome.

A small amount of DNA is also present in the mitochondria. Mitochondria is present in the human body, which converts the energy from the food for cell functioning.

But in the case of sexual activity, the organism takes all the mitochondria DNA from the female partner. Because during the fertilization process, only the female eggs can contain the mitochondria.

What are the functions of DNA?


As discussed, DNA consists of two strands, but during replication, that is, cell division, it becomes a single strand. These single strands contain the pattern from the old DNA.

Sometimes, these cells cannot carry the same pattern from the old DNA, which is referred to as DNA mutation. DNA mutation is necessary and helps in evolution.


The mutation is necessary! It leads to evolution. It happens at the time of fertilization of eggs and sperm.

Through the mutation process, the genetic molecules change into a new form. How does mutation happen?

  • It happens either through the single point changes involving adding or subtracting the new cells.
  • It happens when molecules cross each other and form the two crossed strands of DNA.


The primary function of encoding is to build a suitable protein for each cell. For this purpose, it uses the three base sections called codons that direct the information of one amino acid into a protein.

The codons help create the proper sequence of the basis for each specific protein.

Cell Management

Almost every cell contains the same DNA, but the formation of each cell differs. It is called cell differentiation.

For example, some cells divide to form the liver cell while others include the hormone cell. It happens when the protein gets the signal to develop the appropriate cell.

DNA testing

  • DNA testing helps diagnose the presence of some disease or evaluate the chances of getting a specific condition.
  • It helps find out what disease the person can transfer to the next generation and the chances of DNA mutation.
  • As it reveals the genetic disorder, it helps save their children from particular chronic diseases.
  • It also helps in determining the family tree.

Interesting information about DNA

  • Though the DNA shows the hereditary material, every cell in a human may have the same DNA.
  • The DNA can make copies of it, so when the cell divides into a new cell, it can create a replica of the DNA in the old cell.
  • The organism takes half of the DNA cell from the male and half from the female partner in the reproduction process.


DNA plays a significant role in human life. It contains the information that a person may carry from their biological parents. It makes each species unique.

Not only humans but plants and animals have particular DNA stored inside the cell nucleus, whereas certain bacteria keep it in the cell’s cytoplasm.

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